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Modified BIOLOGY FINAL ONLINE Version

True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

Cells are highly organized, tiny structures.
 

 2. 

The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called heredity.
 

 3. 

Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal conditions in spite of changes in the environment.
 

 4. 

The world’s human population is more than 7 billion people.
 

 5. 

Hydrogen and oxygen atoms have an equal number of electrons.
 

 6. 

An atom that gains or loses one or more electrons is called an ion.
 

 7. 

Passive transport uses ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient.
 

 8. 

Heterotrophs obtain the chemical energy used in metabolism from autotrophs or from other heterotrophs.
 

 9. 

ATP is a portable form of “energy currency” inside cells.
 

 10. 

Genes on chromosomes are the units of inheritance.
 

 11. 

Mendel's initial experiments were monohybrid crosses.
 

 12. 

A nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
 

 13. 

DNA fingerprint analysis can be used to determine whether two individuals are related.
 

 14. 

A transgenic animal is an animal with foreign DNA in its cells.
 

 15. 

Some protists are photosynthetic.
 

 16. 

All protists are single-celled.
 

 17. 

Algae are members of the kingdom Plantae.
 

 18. 

The theory of evolution states that species change over time.
 

 19. 

A virus can only reproduce by controlling a cell.
 

 20. 

All kingdoms include some unicellular organisms.
 

 21. 

Plants are multicellular autotrophs.
 

 22. 

All fungi are heterotrophic.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 23. 

Biology is the study of
a.
minerals.
c.
the weather.
b.
life.
d.
energy.
 

 24. 

Which of the following is characteristic of all living things?
a.
reproduction
c.
cellular organization
b.
metabolism
d.
All of the above
 

 25. 

All matter is composed of
a.
cells.
c.
atoms.
b.
molecules.
d.
carbon.
 

 26. 

The bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons is called a(n)
a.
hydrogen bond.
c.
covalent bond.
b.
ionic bond.
d.
water bond.
 

 27. 

Water is important to life because it
a.
surrounds all cells.
b.
is found inside cells.
c.
influences the shape of the cell membrane.
d.
All of the above
 

 28. 

Nonpolar molecules have
a.
no negative or positive poles.
c.
only a negative pole.
b.
both negative and positive poles.
d.
only a positive pole.
 

 29. 

All organic compounds contain the element
a.
carbon.
c.
calcium.
b.
nitrogen.
d.
sodium.
 

 30. 

One meter is equal to
a.
1,000 mm.
c.
0.001 km.
b.
100 cm.
d.
All of the above
 

 31. 

The smallest units of life are
a.
cells.
c.
chloroplasts.
b.
mitochondria.
d.
None of the above
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0340000.jpg
 

 32. 

Refer to the illustration above. In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are found in
a.
structure 1.
c.
structure 3.
b.
structure 2.
d.
structure 5.
 

 33. 

Refer to the illustration above. Structure 2 is
a.
rough endoplasmic reticulum.
c.
a mitochondrion.
b.
a Golgi apparatus.
d.
the nucleus.
 

 34. 

Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3
a.
to transport material from one part of the cell to another.
b.
to package proteins so they can be stored by the cell.
c.
as a receptor protein.
d.
to produce ATP.
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0380000.jpg
 

 35. 

Refer to the illustration above. The structures labeled 4 are
a.
vesicles.
c.
ribosomes.
b.
lysosomes.
d.
chloroplasts.
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0400000.jpg
 

 36. 

Refer to the illustration above. The process shown is called
a.
osmosis.
c.
active transport.
b.
facilitated diffusion.
d.
diffusion.
 

 37. 

Most of the energy used by life on Earth comes from
a.
the sun.
c.
the moon.
b.
the rotation of the Earth.
d.
None of the above
 

 38. 

ATP is called a cell’s “energy currency” because
a.
ATP catalyzes all metabolic reactions.
b.
ATP allows one organelle to be exchanged for another between cells.
c.
glucose is made of ATP.
d.
most of the energy that drives metabolism is supplied by ATP.
 

 39. 

Cells produce ATP most efficiently in the presence of
a.
water.
c.
oxygen.
b.
carbon dioxide.
d.
glucose.
 

 40. 

Normal human males develop from fertilized eggs containing which of the following sex chromosome combinations?
a.
XY
c.
XO
b.
XX
d.
OO
 

 41. 

In humans, gametes contain
a.
22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome.
b.
1 autosome and 22 sex chromosomes.
c.
45 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome.
d.
1 autosome and 45 sex chromosomes.
 

 42. 

The diploid number of chromosomes in a human skin cell is 46. The number of chromosomes found in a human ovum is
a.
46.
c.
23.
b.
92.
d.
12.5.
 

 43. 

People with Down syndrome have
a.
45 chromosomes.
c.
47 chromosomes.
b.
46 chromosomes.
d.
no X chromosomes.
 

 44. 

Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cell cycle?
a.
C ® M ® G1 ® S ® G2
c.
G1 ® S ® G2 ® M ® C
b.
S ® G1 ® G2 ® M ® C
d.
None of the above
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0500000.jpg
 

 45. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following correctly indicates the order in which these events occur?
a.
A, B, C, D
c.
B, A, C, D
b.
C, B, A, D
d.
A, C, B, D
 

 46. 

The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called
a.
genetics.
c.
development.
b.
heredity.
d.
maturation.
 

 47. 

The “father” of genetics was
a.
A. Knight
c.
Gregor Mendel.
b.
Hans Krebs.
d.
None of the above
 

 48. 

Tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t) in pea plants. Which of the following represents a genotype of a pea plant that is heterozygous for tallness?
a.
T
c.
Tt
b.
TT
d.
tt
 
 
In humans, having freckles (F) is dominant to not having freckles (f). The inheritance of these traits can be studied using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.
spd_bio_final_files/i0550000.jpg
 

 49. 

Refer to the illustration above. The child represented in box 1 in the Punnett square would
a.
be homozygous for freckles.
c.
be heterozygous for freckles.
b.
have an extra freckles chromosome.
d.
not have freckles.
 

 50. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which box in the Punnett square represents a child who does not have freckles?
a.
box 1
c.
box 3
b.
box 2
d.
box 4
 

 51. 

A vaccine is
a.
a substance that kills bacteria or viruses.
b.
an antibody.
c.
a plasmid that contains disease-causing genes.
d.
a harmless version of a disease-causing microbe.
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0590000.jpg
 

 52. 

The entire molecule shown in the diagram above is called a(n)
a.
amino acid.
c.
polysaccharide.
b.
nucleotide.
d.
pyrimidine.
 

 53. 

Which of the following is not found in DNA?
a.
adenine
c.
uracil
b.
cytosine
d.
None of the above
 

 54. 

DNA fingerprinting has been used in criminal investigations because
a.
criminals leave DNA samples behind them when they touch an object at a crime scene.
b.
DNA analysis allows investigators to distinguish body cells of different individuals, who are unlikely to have the same DNA.
c.
bacterial DNA on the hands of criminals may provide a clue as to where that person was when the crime was committed.
d.
DNA found on murder weapons is easy to identify.
 

 55. 

Ian Wilmut’s cloning of Dolly in 1997 was considered a breakthrough in genetic engineering because
a.
scientists thought cloning was impossible.
b.
scientists thought only fetal cells could be used to produce clones.
c.
scientists had never before isolated mammary cells.
d.
sheep had never responded well to gene technology procedures.
 

 56. 

The age of Earth is estimated at about
a.
200,000 years.
c.
2 million years.
b.
4.5 billion years.
d.
2 billion years.
 

 57. 

The fossil record indicates that Earth has experienced
a.
5 mass extinctions.
c.
3 mass extinctions.
b.
4 mass extinctions.
d.
2 mass extinctions.
 

 58. 

Darwin thought that the plants and animals of the Galápagos Islands were similar to those of the nearby coast of South America because
a.
their ancestors had migrated from South America to the Galápagos Islands.
b.
other scientists in South America had written about similar species.
c.
the island organisms had the same nucleotide sequences in their DNA as the mainland organisms.
d.
he found fossils, proving that the animals and plants had common ancestors.
 

 59. 

Which of the following are examples of fossils?
a.
shells or old bones
b.
any traces of dead organisms
c.
footprints of human ancestors, insects trapped in tree sap, and animals buried in tar
d.
All of the above
 

 60. 

A human embryo exhibits all of the following during development except
a.
pharyngeal pouches.
c.
fins.
b.
a bony tail.
d.
a coat of fine fur.
 

 61. 

Linnaeus’s two-word system for naming organisms is called
a.
taxonomic evolution.
c.
Greek polynomials.
b.
Genus species.
d.
binomial nomenclature.
 

 62. 

Protista is an example of a
a.
kingdom.
c.
genus.
b.
class.
d.
species.
 

 63. 

Each level of classification is based on
a.
specific characteristics.
c.
shared characteristics.
b.
general characteristics.
d.
All of the above
 
 
World Population Growth
spd_bio_final_files/i0720000.jpg
 

 64. 

Refer to the illustration above. The American Revolution began in 1776. According to the graph, what was the approximate world population at that time?
a.
500 thousand
c.
1 billion
b.
1 million
d.
2 billion
 

 65. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which letter in the graph indicates the approximate world population in the year 1950?
a.
letter A
c.
letter C
b.
letter B
d.
letter D
 

 66. 

We know viruses are not alive because
a.
they are not cellular.
c.
they cannot use energy.
b.
they cannot make proteins.
d.
All of the above
 

 67. 

The study of viruses is a part of biology because
a.
they belong to the kingdom Monera.
c.
they are living organisms.
b.
they are about to become extinct.
d.
they are active inside living cells.
 

 68. 

The capsid of a virus is the
a.
protective outer coat.
c.
nucleus.
b.
cell membrane.
d.
cell wall and membrane complex.
 

 69. 

A pathogen is an agent that is
a.
beneficial to humans.
c.
harmful to living organisms.
b.
harmful only to plants.
d.
nearly extinct.
 

 70. 

HIV can be transmitted
a.
through sexual contact.
b.
through the sharing of nonsterile needles.
c.
to infants during pregnancy or through breast milk.
d.
All of the above
 
 
spd_bio_final_files/i0800000.jpg
 

 71. 

Refer to the illustration above. Which of the diagrams has a shape like the Bacillus bacterial genus?
a.
Organism A
c.
Organism C
b.
Organism B
d.
None of the above
 

 72. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by Organism A applies to the bacterial genus
a.
Streptococcus, which causes strep throat.
b.
Leptospira, which can cause urinary tract infections in humans.
c.
Bacillus, which produces antibiotics.
d.
Penicillium, which produces penicillin.
 

 73. 

Refer to the illustration above. The shape represented by Organism C is called
a.
coccus.
c.
bacillus.
b.
spirillum.
d.
filamentous.
 

 74. 

The major kinds of archaebacteria include
a.
methanogens.
c.
halophiles.
b.
thermophiles.
d.
All of the above
 

 75. 

Chitin is found in fungi and in
a.
clam shells.
c.
some plant cell walls.
b.
the outer shells of insects.
d.
snail shells.
 

 76. 

Fungi
a.
do not contain chlorophyll.
c.
do not produce their own food.
b.
have cell walls that contain chitin.
d.
All of the above
 

 77. 

All the members of the kingdom Animalia
a.
are heterotrophs.
c.
have cells without cell walls.
b.
are multicellular.
d.
All of the above
 

 78. 

Most terrestrial animals reproduce
a.
sexually using internal fertilization.
c.
sexually using external fertilization.
b.
asexually using internal fertilization.
d.
asexually using external fertilization.
 

 79. 

Hair may
a.
serve as insulation.
c.
be a defensive weapon.
b.
have a sensory function.
d.
All of the above
 

 80. 

Kangaroos and opossums are
a.
marsupials.
c.
macroscelidea.
b.
monotremes.
d.
placentals.
 



 
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