Name: 
 

Biodiversity TEST



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

An endangered species is
a.
a species in danger of extinction.
b.
a species growing on public land.
c.
an organism brought to a place where it has not lived before.
d.
a species that has disappeared entirely.
 

 2. 

How many species are estimated to be living on Earth?
a.
between 10,000 and 100,000
c.
between 1 and 2 million
b.
between 500,000 and 1 million
d.
between 10 and 50 million
 

 3. 

Which of the following would be most effective in slowing the loss of biodiversity?
a.
freezing fertilized eggs of endangered animals in case the species become extinct in the wild
b.
setting aside small plots of land in a variety of ecosystems, such as forests, grasslands, and marshes
c.
creating large parks/preserves in biodiversity hotspots
d.
requiring every country to maintain a seed bank
 

 4. 

In what part of the world are the greatest number of extinctions occurring?
a.
in tropical rain forests
c.
in the Arctic
b.
in deserts
d.
in Europe and the United States
 

 5. 

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
a.
is known for trying to save endangered species through dramatic, attention-grabbing protests.
b.
is an organization of multinational corporations united to fight conservation efforts.
c.
is a collaboration of about 200 governmental agencies and 700 private conservation groups from around the world.
d.
was disbanded after the Earth Summit of 1992.
 

 6. 

Which of the following statements about the California condor is correct?
a.
The California condor has made a dramatic comeback and has been removed from the endangered species list.
b.
The California condor is the subject of a captive-breeding program.
c.
Several hundred breeding pairs of California condors have been released into the wild.
d.
All of the above
 

 7. 

The United States laws that protect endangered species
a.
are considered to be the strongest in the world.
b.
are much weaker than the legal protections in most other countries.
c.
are rarely enforced.
d.
apply to only 10 species of animals and about 20 species of plants.
 

 8. 

According to biologists, what percentage of species have become or are expected to become extinct between 1900 and 2100?
a.
1 percent
c.
25 percent
b.
10 percent
d.
60 percent
 

 9. 

Reintroducing the gray wolf in certain areas of the northwestern United States
a.
is beneficial for all of those working in that area.
b.
creates a mutualist interaction between wolves and elks.
c.
is in accordance with the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973.
d.
discourages hunters from hunting other animals.
 

 10. 

Which of the following would not be illegal under the Endangered Species Act?
a.
capturing a wild animal listed as a threatened species for exhibition in a zoo, provided the animal is well cared for
b.
digging up an endangered plant in a public park and selling it
c.
destroying the habitat of an endangered plant during the building of a federal highway
d.
having a permit to capture and conduct research with endangered species
 

 11. 

Earth's various organisms appear to be
a.
mostly small vertebrates.
c.
concentrated in certain biomes.
b.
largely known to scientists.
d.
evolving at an unprecedented rate.
 

 12. 

The current rate of species extinction is
a.
slower than at any other time in this century.
b.
attributable to the actions of humans.
c.
the result of natural environmental processes.
d.
of little consequence to Earth’s long-term survival.
 

 13. 

The fact that organisms are adapted to survive in particular environments helps to explain why
a.
captive-breeding programs are often ineffective.
b.
non-native plant species never flourish in new areas.
c.
habitat destruction accounts for most extinctions.
d.
compromise is impossible on environmental issues.
 

 14. 

The type of hunting that threatens species survival the most is
a.
sanctioned by industrialized nations.
b.
legal hunting done by sports enthusiasts.
c.
ignored by global conservation groups.
d.
especially a problem in less developed nations.
 

 15. 

The level of biodiversity that involves a variety of habits and communities is
a.
ecosystem diversity.
c.
population diversity.
b.
genetic diversity.
d.
species diversity.
 

 16. 

Reasons for preserving biodiversity include all of the following except
a.
isolating unique genetic material so it can be incorporated into existing crops.
b.
increasing the chances of discovering organisms with medicinal value.
c.
preventing natural evolution.
d.
finding new plants that can supplement the world’s food supply.
 

 17. 

Because of the Endangered Species Act, the sale of protected animals or plants is
a.
punishable by a substantial fine.
b.
subject to approval by a Species Review Board.
c.
limited to quotas set for each species.
d.
allowed for threatened but not endangered species.
 

 18. 

When animals are placed in controlled or restrictive environments, they
a.
become immune to infectious diseases that are common in the wild.
b.
may have difficulty meeting their basic survival needs.
c.
have a low rate of genetic disorders because their gene pool is large.
d.
are less likely to compete.
 

 19. 

Germ-plasm banks are unique because they focus on
a.
saving individual organisms.
c.
preserving animal species.
b.
storing genetic material.
d.
All of the above
 

 20. 

The ecosystem approach to conservation is partly based on the idea that
a.
all rare species should be relocated to regional preserves.
b.
human needs are of secondary importance.
c.
keystone species are genetically superior to other organisms.
d.
a healthy biosphere requires intact ecosystems.
 

 21. 

The human diet has been enriched with native food products such as sweet potatoes, beans, tomatoes, and corn that come from
a.
Pacific islands.
c.
Madagascar and Africa.
b.
Southwest Asia.
d.
Central and South America.
 

 22. 

What level of biodiversity is most commonly equated with the overall concept of biodiversity?
a.
genetic diversity
c.
ecosystem diversity
b.
species diversity
d.
All of the above
 

 23. 

What groups of organisms are most in danger of extinction?
a.
those with small populations
b.
those that migrate or need special habitats
c.
those with large populations that breed quickly
d.
Both (a) and (b)
 

 24. 

Why is biodiversity important to ecosystems?
a.
It allows animals to feed permanently from one type of plant.
b.
It increases at each level of the food chain.
c.
It helps populations adapt to ecological changes.
d.
It reduces the number of insects in a given ecosystem.
 

 25. 

The major human causes of extinction today are
a.
hunting and destroying habitats.
b.
polluting and introducing non-native species.
c.
Both (a) and (b)
d.
Neither (a) nor (b)
 

 26. 

Germ plasm is
a.
an infection caused by germs.
c.
a conservation strategy.
b.
the genetic material of a species.
d.
an endemic plant of California.
 

 27. 

Which areas of the United States represent ecosystems with high levels of biodiversity?
a.
coastal California
c.
Florida Everglades
b.
Hawaiian Islands
d.
All of the above
 

 28. 

Where are many critical biodiversity hotspots located?
a.
cities and developed areas of the world
b.
islands, tropical rain forests, and coastal areas
c.
desert and polar environments
d.
All of the above
 

 29. 

How can zoos, botanic gardens, and wildlife parks help save species?
a.
by preserving threatened species from destruction.
b.
by collecting species from remote wilderness areas.
c.
by participating in captive breeding programs.
d.
Both (a) and (c)
 

 30. 

Reduction in the sea otter population affected the Pacific coast ecosystem by
a.
decreasing the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
b.
reducing the size of the sea urchin population.
c.
promoting the increased growth of the nearby kelp beds.
d.
increasing the biodiversity of the ecosystem.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

 31. 

The number and variety of species on Earth is called ____________________.
 

 

 32. 

The illegal hunting and slaughter of African elephants for their ivory tusks is also known as ____________________.
 

 

 33. 

A(n) _________________________ is any species that is essential to the health of an ecosystem.
 

 

 34. 

A recreational experience among life forms and ecosystems is called ____________________.
 

 

 35. 

Any species with a declining population that could become endangered is a(n) _________________________.
 

 

 36. 

A plan designed to protect one or more species in a large tract of land is known as a(n) _________________________ plan.
 

 

 37. 

A(n) ____________________ is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait.
 

 

 38. 

A(n) _________________________ is any species likely to become extinct if it is not protected.
 

 

 39. 

The _________________________ is a treaty to preserve biodiversity that resulted from the Earth Summit in 1992.
 

 

 40. 

A(n) ______________________________ provides storage for germ cells (such as seeds or DNA) of organisms that may become endangered.
 

 

 41. 

The death of many species in a relatively short time is known as _________________________.
 

 

 42. 

A(n) _________________________ is an organism that is not native to a particular region.
 

 

 43. 

A(n) _________________________ is an organism that is critical to an ecosystem’s functioning.
 

 

 44. 

The content of plant seeds is also known as _________________________.
 

 

 45. 

The kind of diversity represented by all the different genes found in a population is called _________________________.
 

 

 46. 

The sources of many antibiotics are in chemicals produced by ____________________.
 

 

 47. 

A crop produced by combining genetic materials is called _________________________.
 

 

 48. 

A population in which ____________________ takes place may be prone to inherited diseases.
 

 

 49. 

Fire ants in the southeastern United States are an example of a(n) _________________________.
 

 

 50. 

The passenger pigeon is an example of a bird that was once abundant in the United States but is now ____________________.
 

 

 51. 

The Florida panther is a(n) ______________________________ as a result of habitat destruction.
 

 

 52. 

Honeycreepers found in the Hawaiian Islands are an example of a(n) _________________________.
 

 

 53. 

The Amazon rain forest is an example of a habitat with a high species variability known as a(n) ______________________________.
 

 

 54. 

The application of biological sciences to create products such as drugs from plants or other organisms is known as _________________________.
 

 

 55. 

A(n) _________________________ program is being used to help increase the population of California condors.
 

 

Short Answer
 

 56. 

Why are biologists uncertain about how many species are living on Earth today?
 

 57. 

What are the two main benefits of protecting entire ecosystems rather than individual species of plants or animals?
 

 58. 

Explain how exotic species threaten ecosystems.
 

 59. 

Does it make a difference if a biological preserve is 10 hectares or 100 hectares? Explain your answer.
 

 60. 

How can the increased use of tropical rain forests for cattle grazing and farming affect the environment? Where is the greatest number of species extinctions taking place?
 

 61. 

Explain the difference between an endangered species and a threatened species.
 

 62. 

Briefly explain three ways to save individual species.
 

 63. 

List and describe the three levels of biodiversity that are observed in nature and studied worldwide.
 

 64. 

Do you think the Endangered Species Act has been effective in preventing extinctions? Explain.
 



 
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